How to cite a dissertation in APA style in different formats?

Theses in the list of references

It is advisable to refer to hard-to-reach texts as rarely as possible (especially many years ago), using mostly published sources. In most cases, instead of the abstract you can refer to the full text of the thesis (preferably).

Thesis, dissertation cited in APA on the rights of manuscript

Check descriptions for dissertation bibliographic catalogs, for example, electronic catalogs of the RSL (, ProQuest (

Author A.A. Title of work: dis. … PhD / Dr. Psychol. sciences. Tver state University, Tver, 2005.

Author bb Title of work: author. dis. … PhD / Dr. Psychol. sciences. Kazan state University, Kazan, 2005. [Before and after the dot, a space. The city in which the dissertation was defended is indicated, and not the place where the abstract was printed. Publisher name is absent.]

Author A.A. Title of dissertation. PhD dissertation. Name of Institution, Location, Year. [If in a foreign source Unpublished doctoral dissertation or Doctoral dissertation, leave as is.]

If necessary, refer to the thesis, master’s thesis:

Author A.A. Title of work: diploma. work (or: dis. … Master of psychology). Saratov. state University, Saratov, 2005.

Author A.A. Title of dissertation. Master’s thesis. Name of Institution, Location, Year. [Master’s dissertation. If in a foreign source Unpublished master’s thesis, leave it as it is.]

Published dissertation

Author A.A. Title of dissertation. Doctoral dissertation / Master’s thesis. 2009. Proquest database. (Accession / Order No.) [Without a dot at the end. Indicate the name of the scientific base and method of access. For example, Proquest database, Ros. state The library has an electronic database of dissertations. The name of the institution is not given.]

Worrell T.R. Exemplification of health messages in the media. Doctoral dissertation. 2006. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1273133201)

Author A.A. Title of work: dis. … Dr. Psychol. sciences. M., 2005. [Text from the official public database, university repository, HAC, federal educational portal. The name of the institution is not given.]

Thesis published on the Internet

The format is used if and only if you quote a literal, in quotes, quotation from a dissertation on an electronic source without numbered pages and have no opportunity to consult the original. In other cases, the network address (URL) is not necessary.

Author A.A. Title of work: dis. … Cand. psychol. sciences. Tver state University, Tver, 2005. http: //www.xxxxxxxxx/thesis/ [Unofficial source. The network address leading to the full test of the thesis or abstract. It is advisable to avoid specifying the network address, it may change.]

Dissertation abstract in the publication Abstract Abstracts International

Abstract thesis for a foreign degree is fundamentally different from the Russian abstract. Abstract is a brief summary of no more than 500 words, briefly conveying the essence of the work.

Bower D.L. Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1993, 54 (01), 534B.

Some tips for writing term paper proposal

Before starting to write a term paper proposal in some universities, it is necessary to prepare a proposal for the study, which will be the basis of future coursework. The research proposal is defended at least 4 months before the thesis is defended and is the second mandatory stage of work on it after coordination and approval of the thesis topic.

Proposals for term paper students necessarily reflect two blocks of dissertation preparation:

the theoretical and methodological part of the thesis;

the research part of the dissertation.

In the theoretical and methodological part describes the relevance of the topic of the term paper, identifies the problem area, object, and subject of research, as well as the purpose and objectives of the work associated with the hypothesis (hypotheses) of the study. The first part also includes an analysis of the main sources of literature – a review of the key sources in this area, as well as a proposal for working with primary sources, including periodicals, research data, etc. Based on the plan and concept of the term paper, a brief description of the future work, its structure is given. In case, you can always search for a good term paper template for make sure you are doing well.

The research proposal is approved by the student’s supervisor, agreed with the head of the master’s program and defended before the supervisor.

The term proposal for undergraduate students has the following structure:

Theme. Formulated as will be approved by the Academic Council of the Institute. The topic has been agreed with the supervisor and approved by the supervisor of the program.

The topic is NOT formulated as a question. The topic can NOT be descriptive, and the work can be a review (for example, “New trends in …”), it should show the research character of the work. The topic may NOT contain TWO studies (for example, “Study of indicator 1 in large Russian companies and dynamics of growth of indicator 2 in the economy of the Yaroslavl region”). The topic should NOT describe the specific problem of a particular organization if its solution cannot be applied to such organizations.

Conceptual study design based on an analytical literature review. The conceptual scheme of the theoretical basis of the study in graphical form: the considered theories and concepts (with the indication of the authors), the relationship between them (the scheme can be made in the annex to the RP). You can find in Internet a good term paper proposal template, and take a look at what have to be done well. The conclusion from the results of the analytical review of the literature: the degree of knowledge of the research problem, which theoretical concepts will be the basis of the research being conducted. (1.5-2 pages)

8 tips on how to write an excellent term paper

Practically every student in his life faces a serious and often difficult task – to write a term paper. At the same time, defense of the course work will only be successful if independent scientific work is created, and the option with Internet resources is not rolled up. It would seem that what is so difficult here is enough to read how to correctly write the coursework and put everything into practice.

And there is plenty of time to do the work. However, very often the student is faced with the need to learn how to quickly write a term paper, sometimes even a day.

 Regardless of whether you will write a term semester or spend only a day on its implementation, you need to arm yourself with the knowledge of how to do it qualitatively. So, write all the points.

1. You must have a clear topic and plan your term paper. The topic is usually agreed in advance with the supervisor. During the conversation, try to determine how to write a coursework for the teacher to accept it, or at least ask for an example of a term paper. Write down what he wants you to notice, what aspects must be included in your work.

2. It is also advisable to know in advance the rules of term paper design, for example, in what type of text to write a coursework, what indents to do around the edges, etc. whole

3. After clarifying the topic, we make a plan for the course work and begin to collect material. At the same time, we take into account all the material on the topic, even if it is not directly suitable. It is always easier than to remove something extra than to invent one yourself.

4. Following the recommendations of how to write a term paper, do not forget, if possible, sort the collected material into folders, the importance, note the primary nuances.

5. During the copying of the material we mark, from which sources we take the information. This is useful for making a list of references at the end of the work.

6. So, we already have a more or less decent layer of information, you can do the compilation of the backbone of the work, arrange the title page course and remember what was written in the article, how to write an introduction to the course work. So the structure of the work will appear before us more clearly.

7. We proceed directly to the point on how to write the coursework, where to start? From writing a draft version. Our introduction is almost ready, we distribute the remaining material among the chapters, we look at what needs to be said in the conclusion (conclusions).

8. Do not forget about the psychological moment. Need to write a coursework in a matter of days? Or gather semester material for her? Or maybe contact a specialized company and just order a term paper, where you can also find an example of term paper for college? The main thing is to believe in success, that everything will turn out to be “excellent”!

Is it better to find good service for dissertations or write it by your own?

The decision to order a thesis does not mean that you are a negligent graduate student, applicant or Ph.D., on the contrary, it shows that a person can value his time, distributing it as efficiently as possible. Although the presence of a scientific degree is a good, and sometimes obligatory, addition to the basis for building a career, but practical experience is also important.

Sometimes it is almost impossible to combine the writing of a thesis with a full-fledged working process, it puts a person in front of the need to choose something one. However, in order to exist we, in order to free our clients for more important matters, to look at the mountains of scientific articles, books, select the most interesting and necessary information bit by bit, realize the ideas of scientific developments, arrange them according to the requirements.

A thesis for a degree is a voluminous and complex work that requires long, painstaking work, analysis of a large amount of information, own scientific research, development, as well as further substantiation of their expediency.

Therefore, the real price of the thesis is expressed not only in money, but it is also a lot of tedious hours of calculations, sleepless nights, a constant lack of time for professional activities and personal needs. Instead of abandoning a career, their hobbies, even a family, more and more graduate students choose such an option as writing a thesis to order.

Any doctoral dissertation written to order is not just leaflets with ready-made text, but the fruit of scientific reflections, calculations, data collection, laboratory research, etc. Without professional assistance, it can be extremely difficult to deal with this, so often protection for a finished job turns into failure.

Together you can understand the terminology, analyze all calculations, highlight key information and prepare clear conclusions. The decision to issue a PhD thesis to order as a result will give you answers to the trickiest questions on defense and help you to succeed.

In scientific work it is impossible to make confident predictions for the future, since there are always obstacles that can be overcome only with the advent of new ideas.

Interesting topics for research paper

Finding a topic is one of the main stages of research. The choice of an interesting topic for research work will allow not only to differ favorably from other authors but also to receive a number of advantages.

The generally accepted components of any research work are the problem, purpose, objectives, object, subject, and topic. The problem involves posing a question that needs to be addressed by the study. One of the most interesting is a psychology research paper topic where you can discuss many things and they will be even connecting with each other. The goal describes the desired result. Tasks reflect the steps that must be taken to achieve the goal. Object – the direction of research, reflecting its essence. The subject is part of the object on which the scientific work is built. The topic for research work is a brief expression of the single oil of the entire work, a particular angle of research.

Let’s figure out how to choose interesting topics for research work.

To begin with, it is necessary to define general rules for the selection and formulation of topics.

1. The topic should be brief, concise and complete. No need to copy a paragraph of scientific work in the title. With an easy viewing of the article, such headlines are difficult for quick reference and, in most cases, not fully read. The wording of research topics usually includes 5-8 words.

2. An interesting topic may contain a rhetorical question. Such headlines are widespread in journalism and their application is characteristic of the scientific work of the humanitarian field, where the question is initially raised, and in the course of the work the analysis and preparation of conclusions are carried out.

3. The topic should cover clear boundaries and reflect the essence of the work. For example, psychology research paper topics about the middle age crisis. If the topic of research work covers too large a field, and the work itself does not reveal the essence of the title, the evaluation committee may have relevant questions. The same can be when the topic reflects only a part of scientific work.

4. The subject must be doable. If the author chooses an interesting topic, he should be ready to search for information on it, as well as the means to achieve the goal, which is sometimes difficult. In the information search, it is recommended to use not only domestic but also foreign resources. The tool base can be provided by interested in educational institutions or enterprises.

5. The theme, if possible, should be original. The most attention-grabbing topics contain an element of surprise, of public importance, have intriguing formulations and controversial points. Original topics are most interesting. For example, “ITALY’S ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS IS A NEW ERA OR AWAY FOR LEARNING.”